Endangered Species - Flora

Latest Sources
August 2016

Why Seed Banking Matters in New England and Who’s Funding It, InsidePhilanthropy.com

Maine Natural Areas Program
Rare, Threatened and Endangered Plant Taxa

*Status Definitions
E = Endangered, Rare and in danger of being lost from the state in the foreseeable future; or federally listed as Endangered.
T = Threatened, Rare and, with further decline, could become endangered; or federally listed as Threatened.
SC = Special Concern, Rare in Maine, based on available information, but not sufficiently rare to be considered Threatened or Endangered
PE = Potentially Extirpated; Species has not been documented in Maine in past 20 years or loss of last known occurrence has been documented.

Scientific Name Common Name State Status
Acalypha virginica * Three-seeded Mercury PE
Adiantum aleuticum Aleutian Maidenhair Fern E
Adlumia fungosa Allegheny Vine E
Agalinis maritima Saltmarsh False-foxglove SC
Agalinis neoscotica Nova Scotia False-foxglove T
Agalinis purpurea Large-purple False Foxglove E
Agrostis mertensii Boreal Bentgrass T
Aletris farinosa * Unicorn Root PE
Allium canadense Wild Garlic SC
Allium tricoccum Wild Leek SC
Amelanchier gaspensis † Gaspe Shadbush SC
Amelanchier nantucketensis Nantucket Shadbush T
Amerorchis rotundifolia Small Round-leaved Orchis T
Anemone acutiloba * † Sharp-lobed Hepatica PE
Anemone multifida Cut-leaved Anemone T
Anthoxanthum monticola † Alpine Sweet Grass T
Arctous alpina † Alpine Bearberry T
Arnica lanceolata Hairy Arnica T
Artemisia campestris ssp. canadensis * † Canadian Wormwood PE
Artemisia campestris ssp. caudata Beach wormwood SC
Asarum canadense Wild Ginger T
Asclepias tuberosa * Butterfly Weed PE
Asplenium platyneuron Ebony Spleenwort SC
Asplenium rhizophyllum * Walking Fern PE
Asplenium viride † Green Spleenwort E
Astragalus alpinus var. brunetianus Alpine Milk-vetch SC
Astragalus eucosmus * Elegant Milk-vetch PE
Astragalus robbinsii var. minor Robbins' Milk-vetch E
Aureolaria pedicularia Fern-leaved False Foxglove SC
Baptisia tinctoria * Yellow Wild Indigo PE
Barbarea orthoceras * American Winter-cress PE
Bartonia paniculata Screwstem T
Benthamidia florida † Flowering Dogwood E
Betula glandulosa Tundra Dwarf Birch E
Betula minor Dwarf White Birch E
Betula pumila Swamp Birch SC
Bidens eatonii Eaton's Bur-marigold SC
Bidens hyperborea Estuary Bur-marigold SC
Bistorta vivipara † Alpine Bistort E
Boechera laevigata † Smooth Rockcress T
Boechera missouriensis † Missouri Rockcress T
Bolboschoenus novae-angliae Marsh Bulrush E
Bolboschoenus robustus Saltmarsh Bulrush SC
Botrychium lunaria Moonwort E
Botrychium oneidense Blunt-lobed grapefern T
Botrychium pallidum Pale Moonwort E
Bromus kalmii Wild Chess E
Bromus pubescens Hairy Wood Brome-grass SC
Calamagrostis cinnoides Small Reed Grass SC
Calamagrostis pickeringii Pickering's Reed Grass T
Calamagrostis stricta ssp. inexpansa Northern Reed Grass E
Calamagrostis stricta ssp. stricta Neglected Reed Grass T
Callitriche terrestris Terrestrial Water-starwort SC
Calystegia spithamaea Upright Bindweed T
Cardamine bellidifolia Alpine Bitter-cress E
Cardamine concatenata Cut-leaved Toothwort E
Cardamine longii Long's Bitter-cress T
Cardamine maxima Large toothwort SC
Carex adusta Swarthy Sedge E
Carex alopecoidea * Foxtail Sedge PE
Carex atherodes Awned Sedge T
Carex atratiformis Black Sedge SC
Carex baileyi * Bailey's Sedge PE
Carex bicknellii Bicknell's Sedge E
Carex bigelowii Bigelow's Sedge SC
Carex bullata Button Sedge SC
Carex bushii * Bush's Sedge PE
Carex capillaris Capillary Sedge SC
Carex crawei * Crawe's Sedge PE
Carex eburnea Ebony Sedge E
Carex garberi Garber's Sedge SC
Carex granularis Meadow Sedge T
Carex gynocrates Northern Bog Sedge SC
Carex hirtifolia Pubescent sedge SC
Carex laevivaginata Smooth-sheathed Sedge SC
Carex laxiculmis Spreading Sedge E
Carex livida † Livid Sedge SC
Carex media † Intermediate Sedge E
Carex muehlenbergii var. meuhlenbergii Muhlenberg Sedge E
Carex oronensis Orono Sedge T
Carex polymorpha Variable Sedge E
Carex prairea Prairie Sedge T
Carex praticola * Northern Meadow Sedge PE
Carex rariflora * Loose-flowered Sedge PE
Carex recta * Saltmarsh Sedge PE
Carex rostrata Beaked Sedge SC
Carex saxatilis Russett Sedge E
Carex scirpoidea Bulrush Sedge SC
Carex siccata Dry Land Sedge SC
Carex sparganioides Bur-reed Sedge E
Carex sterilis Dioecious Sedge SC
Carex tenuiflora Sparse-flowered Sedge SC
Carex typhina Cattail Sedge E
Carex vacillans Brackish Sedge E
Carex vestita Clothed Sedge E
Carex waponahkikensis Dawn-land sedge SC
Carya cordiformis Bitternut Hickory E
Castanea dentata American Chestnut SC
Castilleja septentrionalis Northern Painted Cup SC
Ceanothus americanus New Jersey Tea T
Cenchrus longispinus * Long-spined Sandbur PE
Chamaecyparis thyoides Atlantic White Cedar SC
Chenopodium foggii Fogg's Goosefoot T
Chenopodium rubrum var. rubrum * Coast-blite Goosefoot PE
Chimaphila maculata Spotted Wintergreen E
Cirsium horridulum * Yellow Thistle PE
Clematis occidentalis ssp. occidentalis Purple Clematis SC
Clethra alnifolia Sweet Pepper-bush SC
Coptidium lapponicum † Lapland Buttercup T
Corallorhiza odontorhiza Autumn Coral-root E
Crassula aquatica Pygmyweed SC
Cryptogramma stelleri Slender Cliffbrake T
Cryptotaenia canadensis * Wild Chervil PE
Cynoglossum virginianum ssp. boreale Northern Wild Comfrey E
Cyperus erythrorhizos Red-root Flatsedge E
Cyperus houghtonii * Houghton's Flatsedge PE
Cyperus squarrosus Awned Flatsedge SC
Cypripedium arietinum Ram's-head Lady's-slipper E
Cypripedium reginae Showy Lady's-slipper SC
Descurainia incana * Richardson's Tansy-mustard PE
Diapensia lapponica Lapland Diapensia SC
Dicentra canadensis Squirrel-corn T
Diphasiastrum sitchense Alaskan Clubmoss T
Draba arabisans Rock Whitlow-grass T
Draba cana Lance-leaved Draba E
Draba glabella Smooth draba E
Drosera anglica English Sundew E
Drosera linearis Slender-leaved Sundew E
Dryopteris filix-mas ssp. brittonii † Male Wood Fern E
Dryopteris fragrans Fragrant Wood Fern SC
Dryopteris goldiana Goldie's Wood Fern SC
Eleocharis aestuum Tidal Spikerush SC
Eleocharis engelmannii * Engelmann's Spikerush PE
Eleocharis nitida Slender Spikerush SC
Eleocharis quinqueflora ssp. fernaldii † Few-flowered Spikerush SC
Eleocharis rostellata Beaked Spikerush T
Eleocharis tuberculosa Long-tubercled Spikerush E
Elymus hystrix Bottlebrush Grass SC
Elymus macgregorii MacGregor's Rye SC
Epilobium anagallidifolium Alpine Willow-herb E
Epilobium hornemannii Hornemann's Willow-herb E
Epilobium lactiflorum * White-flower Willow-herb PE
Eragrostis capillaris * Tiny Lovegrass PE
Eragrostis hypnoides * Teal Lovegrass PE
Erigeron acris ssp. kamtschaticus * † Bitter Fleabane PE
Erigeron hyssopifolius Hyssop-leaved Fleabane SC
Eriocaulon parkeri Parker's Pipewort SC
Eupatorium pubescens † Hairy Boneset E
Eupatorium sessilifolium Upland Boneset E
Euphrasia oakesii * Oakes' Eyebright PE
Eurybia schreberi * † Schreber's Wood-aster PE
Euthamia caroliniana † Narrow-leaved Goldenrod T
Eutrochyium fistulosum † Hollow Joe-pye Weed SC
Festuca prolifera Arctic Red Fescue E
Fimbristylis autumnalis Fall Fimbry SC
Galearis spectabilis Showy Orchis E
Galium brevipes Limestone Swamp Bedstraw SC
Galium kamtschaticum Boreal Bedstraw SC
Galium labradoricum Bog Bedstraw SC
Galium obtusum * Blunt-leaved Bedstraw PE
Gamochaeta purpurea * Purple Cudweed PE
Gentiana rubricaulis Red-stemmed Gentian T
Gentianella amarella ssp. acuta Northern Gentian E
Gentianella quinquefolia * Stiff Gentian PE
Geocaulon lividum Northern Comandra SC
Geum fragarioides † Barren-strawberry E
Glyceria acutiflora Sharp-scaled Manna-grass E
Goodyera oblongifolia Giant Rattlesnake-plantain E
Hackelia deflexa ssp. americana † Northern Stickseed E
Harrimanella hypnoides Moss Bell-heather T
Hedysarum alpinum ssp. americanum † Alpine Sweet-broom SC
Heterantha dubia † Water Stargrass SC
Hieracium gronovii * Hairy Hawkweed PE
Hieracium robinsonii Robinson's Hawkweed E
Hieracium venosum † Rattlesnake Hawkweed E
Hottonia inflata Featherfoil T
Houstonia longifolia † Long-leaved Bluet SC
Huperzia appressa † Appalachian Fir-clubmoss SC
Huperzia selago Northern Firmoss T
Hypericum ascyron Great St John's-wort E
Hypoxis hirsuta * Yellow Star-grass PE
Ilex glabra Ink-berry E
Ilex laevigata Smooth Winterberry Holly SC
Impatiens pallida Pale Jewel-weed SC
Iris prismatica Slender Blue Flag T
Isoetes acadiensis Acadian Quillwort SC
Isoetes prototypus Prototype Quillwort T
Isoetes riparia var. canadensis * † Shore Quillwort PE
Isotria medeoloides Small Whorled Pogonia E
Isotria verticillata * Large Whorled Pogonia PE
Iva frutescens ssp. oraria Marsh-elder E
Juncus alpinoarticulatus ssp. americanus † Alpine Rush SC
Juncus secundus Secund Rush T
Juncus stygius ssp. americanus Moor Rush SC
Juncus subtilis Slender Rush E
Juncus torreyi * Torrey's Rush PE
Juncus vaseyi Vasey's Rush E
Kalmia latifolia Mountain-laurel SC
Kalmia procumbens † Alpine-azalea T
Krigia virginica Dwarf Dandelion E
Lechea tenuifolia * Slender Pinweed PE
Lespedeza hirta ssp. hirta Hairy Bush-clover E
Liatris novae-angliae † Northern Blazing Star T
Lilaeopsis chinensis Lilaeopsis SC
Limosella australis Mudwort SC
Lindera benzoin Spicebush SC
Lindernia dubia var. anagallidea * Slender False Pimpernel PE
Lipocarpha micrantha Dwarf Bulrush T
Lobelia siphilitica * Great Blue Lobelia PE
Lomatogonium rotatum Marsh Felwort T
Lonicera dioica Mountain Honeysuckle E
Lonicera oblongifolia Swamp Honeysuckle SC
Lupinus perennis * † Wild Lupine PE
Luzula confusa Northern Wood Rush E
Luzula spicata Spiked Wood Rush T
Lycopodiella alopecuroides Foxtail Bog-clubmoss E
Malaxis monophyllos ssp. brachypoda † White Adder's-mouth E
Micranthes foliolosa † Star Saxifrage E
Mikania scandens * Climbing Hempweed PE
Minuartia glabra Smooth Sandwort SC
Minuartia groenlandica Mountain Sandwort SC
Minuartia michauxii Michaux's Sandwort E
Minuartia rubella Arctic Sandwort E
Montia fontana Blinks SC
Muhlenbergia richardsonis Soft-leaf Muhly SC
Muhlenbergia sobolifera Cliff Muhly E
Nabalus boottii † Boott's Rattlesnake Root E
Nabalus racemosus † Glaucous Rattlesnake Root SC
Neottia auriculata † Auricled Twayblade T
Nuphar advena Yellow Pond-lily SC
Nymphaea leibergii Pygmy Water-lily T
Oenothera nutans * Riverbank Evening Primrose PE
Omalotheca supina Alpine Cudweed E
Ophioglossum pusillum Adder's Tongue Fern SC
Osmorhiza depauperata * Blunt-fruited Sweet-cicely PE
Oxytropis campestris var. johannensis St John Oxytrope T
Panax quinquefolius American Ginseng E
Parietaria pensylvanica * Pennsylvania Pellitory PE
Paronychia argyrocoma Silverling T
Pedicularis furbishiae Furbish's Lousewort E
Persicaria robustior * Stout Smartweed PE
Phegopteris hexagonoptera Broad Beech Fern SC
Phleum alpinum Mountain Timothy T
Phryma leptostachya * American Lopseed PE
Phyllodoce caerulea Mountain Heath T
Pinguicula vulgaris Common Butterwort E
Piptatherum canadense † Canada Mountain-ricegrass SC
Platanthera flava var. herbiola Pale Green Orchis SC
Platanthera leucophaea Prairie White-fringed Orchid E
Platanus occidentalis * Sycamore PE
Poa glauca White Bluegrass T
Poa laxa ssp. fernaldiana † Wavy Bluegrass E
Polemonium vanbruntiae Bog Jacob's-ladder E
Polygala cruciata ssp. aquilonia * † Marsh Milkwort PE
Polygala senega Seneca Snakeroot E
Polygonum douglasii Douglas' Knotweed SC
Polygonum tenue * Slender Knotweed PE
Potamogeton friesii Fries' Pondweed E
Potamogeton pulcher Spotted Pondweed T
Potamogeton strictifolius Straight-leaved Pondweed T
Potamogeton vaseyi Vasey's Pondweed SC
Primula laurentiana Bird's-eye Primrose SC
Primula mistassinica Mistassini Primrose SC
Proserpinaca pectinata Comb-leaved Mermaid-weed E
Prunus maritima Beach Plum E
Pseudognaphalium micradenium * † Small Rabbit Tobacco PE
Pycnanthemum muticum * Blunt Mountain-mint PE
Pyrola minor Lesser Wintergreen SC
Quercus bicolor Swamp White Oak T
Quercus coccinea Scarlet Oak E
Quercus montana Chestnut Oak T
Ranunculus ambigens * Water-plantain Spearwort PE
Ranunculus fascicularis Early Crowfoot T
Ranunculus gmelinii † Small Yellow Water Crowfoot SC
Rhododendron lapponicum Lapland Rosebay T
Rhododendron maximum Great Rhododendron T
Rhododendron viscosum Clammy Azalea E
Rhynchospora capillacea Horned Beak-rush T
Rhynchospora macrostachya Tall Beak-rush E
Rosa acicularis ssp. sayi * Prickly Rose PE
Sagittaria filiformis Narrow-leaf Arrowhead SC
Sagittaria montevidensis ssp. spongiosa † Spongy-leaved Arrowhead SC
Sagittaria rigida Stiff Arrowhead SC
Salicornia bigelovii Dwarf Glasswort SC
Salicornia maritima * Samphire PE
Salix arctophila Arctic Willow E
Salix argyrocarpa * Silverleaf Willow PE
Salix candida Hoary Willow E
Salix exigua ssp. interior † Sandbar Willow E
Salix herbacea Dwarf Willow T
Salix myricoides Blue-leaf Willow T
Salix occidentalis † Dwarf Prairie Willow SC
Salix planifolia Tea-leaved Willow T
Salix uva-ursi Bearberry Willow T
Samolus valerandi ssp. parviflorus Water Pimpernel SC
Sanguisorba canadensis Canada Burnet T
Sassafras albidum Sassafras SC
Saxifraga paniculata ssp. neogaea † Livelong Saxifrage E
Scirpus georgianus Georgia bulrush SC
Scirpus longii Long's Bulrush T
Scirpus pendulus Pendulous Bulrush SC
Scrophularia marilandica * Carpenter's Square PE
Scutellaria parvula var. missouriensis * Leonard's Skullcap PE
Selaginella apoda Creeping Spike-moss E
Selaginella selaginoides Low Spike-moss T
Sericocarpus asteroides White-topped Aster E
Shepherdia canadensis Canada Buffaloberry E
Silene acaulis var. exscapa * Moss Campion PE
Solidago leiocarpa † Cutler's Goldenrod T
Solidago speciosa Showy Goldenrod T
Sorghastrum nutans Indian Grass E
Sphenopholis obtusata * Prairie Wedge-grass PE
Spiranthes lacera var. gracilis * † Southern Slender Ladies'-tresses PE
Spiranthes lucida Shining Ladies'-tresses T
Sporobolus compositus var. drummondii † Longleaf Dropseed E
Stuckenia filiformis † Northern Slender Pondweed SC
Suaeda calceoliformis American Sea-blite T
Symphyotrichum anticostense Anticosti Aster E
Symphyotrichum dumosum * Bushy Aster PE
Symphyotrichum patens * Late Purple Aster PE
Symphyotrichum subulatum Small Salt-marsh Aster T
Tanacetum bipinnatum ssp. huronense Huron Tansy SC
Thalictrum thalictroides Rue-anemone E
Thalictrum venulosum var. confine † Boundary Meadow-rue T
Trichophorum clintonii Clinton's Bulrush SC
Triglochin gaspensis Gaspe Arrow-grass SC
Trillium grandiflorum * Large White Trillium PE
Triosteum aurantiacum Wild Coffee E
Triphora trianthophora Nodding Pogonia T
Ulmus rubra * Slippery Elm PE
Vaccinium boreale Alpine Blueberry SC
Vahlodea atropurpurea Mountain Hairgrass E
Valeriana uliginosa Marsh Valerian SC
Verbena urticifolia White Vervain SC
Veronica wormskjoldii Alpine Speedwell E
Viola canadensis * Tall White Violet PE
Viola novae-angliae New England Violet SC
Viola palmata * Palmate-leaved Violet PE
Vitis aestivalis var. bicolor Summer Grape T
Wolffia brasiliensis Pointed watermeal SC
Wolffia columbiana Columbia Water-meal SC
Woodsia alpina Northern Woodsia T
Woodsia glabella Smooth Woodsia T
Woodsia obtusa Blunt-lobed Woodsia T
Woodwardia areolata * Netted Chain Fern PE
Xyris smalliana Yellow-eyed Grass E
Zannichellia palustris Horned Pondweed SC

Nomenclature follows Flora Novae Angliae (Haines 2011)
* taxon not currently known to be extant in Maine
† taxon with recent name change